Category: Science & Engineering

I started to sketch a quadrotor model myself and derive the equations of motion, but I lost confidence and figured it would be best to sample the literature first. Below is a list of papers I found online. Click the links to see the papers. All the papers are useful, but I found the, “PID …

Dynamics and Controls Study Materials

Dynamics and Controls Study Materials

I’ve enjoyed great opportunities to both study and work on mechanics, electronics, real-time control systems and supporting software for automated machines: Agricultural machine control for the most part, and some neat control systems problems in communications, sensors,  and other areas. Dynamic Modelling One thing I really like about, modelling a dynamic system is you need …

QuadCopter DC Motor(BLDC) + Propeller Dynamics

QuadCopter DC Motor(BLDC) + Propeller Dynamics

Ultimately we’ll buy Electronic Speed Controllers (ESCs) for our Quad motors. They take PWM in and produce drive voltages for brushless DC motors. Let’s jump in to understand the motor-propeller subsystem on a quadrotor. DC Motor Modelling You’ll find basic DC motor equations in any undergraduate dynamics textbook. I add the Bouabdallah model for the …

In  the last quadcopter post we clarified the load torque of the propeller applied through the gearbox to the motor shaft. We won’t even have a gearbox but the terms in the equation needed clarification. We haven’t yet covered the main point of the propeller: LIFT! A propeller blade is just a spinning wing at each …

Quadrotor Dynamic Model: Propeller Gyroscopic Effect.

Quadrotor Dynamic Model: Propeller Gyroscopic Effect.

The equations below are from the last post, where we see we matched our Bouabdallah paper‘s equations for rotational motion. We know some propeller input is going to be a part of the applied torque. There is going to be a set of equations for linear motion too, but let’s clarify what is going on …

Finalizing Equations Of Motion: Thrust Inputs from Propellers

Finalizing Equations Of Motion: Thrust Inputs from Propellers

This post explains how we determine propeller thrust and drag factors for our quadcopter project. The last couple of posts have been working out the sum of torque on our quadcopter. A few weeks ago, we covered the gyroscopic effect of the total airframe in the “equations of motion” post. Next, we looked at the …

Linear Quadratic Control with Reference Input

Linear Quadratic Control with Reference Input

The last post was our introduction to the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). We saw there that as we started with initial conditions or introduced a disturbance the LQR will drive the states to zero. In the simulations we saw the graphic of the copter converge on the zero state: zero roll, pitch, yaw, and respective …

Maximum Thrust vs. Battery Voltage

Maximum Thrust vs. Battery Voltage

In a previous post we got the Ardupilot simulator stable running the linear-quadratic attitude controller, but we had a hack in-place for normalizing our body torque commands from Newton-meters to -1 to +1 for input to the Ardupilot motor sub-system. Purpose This post uses a test stand to measure maximum available thrust over a range …